Titanium  is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust.

The ores used for commercial production of titanium are:

•    Rutile (titanium dioxide TiO2),
•    Ilmenite (FeTiO3).

Titanium is produced by the Kroll process developed by William Justin Kroll in 1946:

•    Concentrating - separation of titanium dioxide from the gangue and iron oxide (in ilmenite).
•    Carbochlorination - chemical treatment of titanium dioxide in fluid bed reactor with chlorine and petroleum coke at the temperature 1650°F (900°C) resulted in formation of impure titanium tetrachloride:

TiO2 + Cl2 + C = TiCl4 + CO2

      Purification of the liquid impure titanium tetrachloride using fractional distillation and precipitation to remove iron chloride and other impurities.

      Titanium sponge production – reaction of pure titanium tetrachloride with magnesium in a stainless retort at 2010°F (1100°C) under argon atmosphere:

TiCl4 + 2Mg = Ti + 2MgCl2

The resulted magnesium chloride is liquid and it is separated from the solid titanium which is obtained in form of porous sponge.

      Melting of titanium sponge in vacuum arc furnace or under inert atmosphere and casting the melt to ingots.